Can Retinol Cause Skin Thinning?
Plus, everything else you need to know about the multitasking vitamin A treatment.
No doubt about it: retinol has taken on superhero status in the skincare routines of women everywhere. As the purest form of vitamin A, retinol fights acne, does away with wrinkles, and pumps up collagen - it's like having your own personal superpower.
...Or is it? Some beauty experts that retinol shouldn't be used long-term, because it can eventually thin the skin and, as a result, even accelerate signs of aging. *Cue mass panic*
But before you banish your retinol for good, here's what a few leading dermatologists have to say about the drama surrounding this hero skincare ingredient.
Can Retinol Cause Skin Thinning?
First, a refresher on how retinol actually works: "Retinol removes and exfoliates unnecessary dead skin cells, which causes the basal layer - or the stem cell layer of the skin - to produce newer and more healthy cells," says , founder of Icecreamwala Dermatology in Berkeley, California.
"If you're overusing your retinol, or if you're using a retinol that's too strong for you, it can lead to peeling, irritation, and excessive dryness, which may have led to retinol's association with skin thinning," she says. "This will make your skin look older and accentuate wrinkles." This probably not what you're going for when you start using the stuff.
That aside, there's no question that retinol makes your skin more sensitive to the sun, which could actually be the culprit behind your skin thinning, says Miami-based board-certified dermatologist Dr. Stacy Chimento of .
"Sunburn causes skin thinning, so the only advice would be to protect your skin from the sun and use retinol appropriately." Try a light SPF for daily protection, like the Tatcha Silken Pore Perfecting Sunscreen ($65; ).
What Is Skin Thinning Anyway - and How Does It Fast Track Signs of Aging?
Skin thickness is partially determined by your genetics. "Those with more melanin in the skin tend to have thicker skin naturally," she explains - meaning lighter skin tones tend to have thinner skin than darker skin tones. Melanin is also protective against UV damage which helps prevent UV-induced skin thinning.
However, that doesn't mean the thickness is completely out of your control. According to Dr. Icecreamwala, "Some people can develop thin skin over time through environmental exposures, such as ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle choices, such as smoking," she shares.
These factors can all compromise the integrity of the skin - and therefore make it more susceptible to damage, Dr. Icecreamwala explains. This, in turn, "accelerates the aging process."
If You're Using Retinol Correctly, You'll Actually Thicken Your Skin
"The idea that retinol thins the skin is false," asserts David Colbert, M.D., co-founder of the .
Dermatologists point to many clinical studies refuting the idea that retinol thins the skin - and that there's no danger in using retinoids themselves if you're adding them to your skincare routine safely.
"Retinol will not decrease the skin barrier if used in the correct dosage,'' agrees Dr. Icecreamwala. In fact, she says it can actually do the opposite: "Because retinol is collagen and elastin-boosting, it can actually help thicken the skin over time if used appropriately."
"If the skin barrier is compromised by your use of retinol, you are using way too much of it and way too strong a dose," she continues. "That's why it's so important to find a retinol dose that is right for you, under the guidance of a dermatologist."
She adds, "Retinol should only cause irritation for the first few weeks as your skin adjusts, which isn't enough time for skin thinning to develop. If you are getting continual irritation from your retinol, you most likely need to switch to a lower strength and decrease the frequency of use."
Signs that your skin is not tolerating retinol include redness, dryness, itchiness, flaking and peeling.
But even if you have darker - and therefore naturally thicker - skin, you should still proceed with caution. "If the retinol you're using is too strong for your skin causing inflammation, darker skin tones may have a higher risk of discoloration, or hyperpigmentation, from the use of it," she adds.
How Should You Apply Retinol?
If you're new to using retinol, it can take your skin a minute to get used to it. Meaning, too much at first can cause irritation. Dr. Chimento suggests only using retinol one to two days a week to start out and get your skin acquainted.
And you'll also want to be cognizant of how strong you retinol is. Dr. Icecreamwala recommends starting with a retinol that is 0.3 or 0.5%. "Using a higher level of retinol right off the bat can cause skin irritation for sure, especially if you have thinner (and therefore more sensitive) skin," she says. "I recommend that people start using retinol two to three times a week in the beginning, increasing to nightly use if your skin can tolerate it."
As your skin gets used to the lesser strength retinol, you can slowly increase the percentage to possibly a 1.0%, or transition to a prescription Retin-A, she suggests.
When applying, Dr. Chimento also recommends spreading a thin layer over your face, avoiding your eyes and mouth, and to follow it up with a moisturizing lotion or cream, like this Drunk Elephant Protini Polypeptide Moisturizer ($68; ).
Is There a Point When I Should Stop Retinol Use?
If you're wondering if you're clear to use your retinol as a long-term anti-aging strategy without negative side effects (like compromising the strength of your skin), all derms agree the answer is yes - in fact, you'll need to use it continuously if you want to keep benefiting from the effects, says Dr. Colbert.
There are a few things to keep in mind, though. "Be careful not to use too many products at once [in combination with retinol]," advises Dr. Colbert. "These include glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and abrasive agents. In these cases it may cause irritation."
Dr. Chimento agrees that retinol can be beneficial to your skin with longterm use. "If appropriately used, retinol is safe to use long-term as a method to fight skin aging," she tells InStyle. "Retinol helps maintain skin elasticity."
She just advises to steer clear of combining it with benzoyl peroxide ("they do opposite things and would make the retinol less effective") and vitamin C, though, you can use in tandem if you apply vitamin C in the morning and retinol at night.
"I absolutely recommend retinol as long-term anti-aging products," Dr. Icecreamwala agrees. "But it's important to remember it can be drying for those with sensitive skin."
For these people, or those with naturally thin or dry skin, "they need to use a facial oil alongside their retinol." He recommends his own Colbert MD Ilumino Face Oil ($150; ) as one option.
Keep in mind that your skin's needs can change over time, or even over the course of the year. "Over time, our skin doesn't hold on to as much moisture. If you're noticing that your skin has become more dry as you age, or during the winter season, decrease the frequency and strength of your retinol," Dr. Icecreamwala suggests.
Luckily, if you've tried retinol in lower doses and your skin truly can't tolerate it, you have other anti-aging options. Two ingredients to try: bakuchiol, a natural alternative to retinol, and PHAs, a gentle-yet-effective acid that's growing in popularity.
The bottom line? If used correctly and safely, retinol doesn't need to have a dark side.